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Servicehefte

Manualen for rett smøring

Spesifikasjoner i smøreverden er særdeles viktig i en jungel av smøremidler.

Riktig smøring gir lengre levetid, hindrer havari, og gir bedre økonomi på bunnlinjen. Derfor har vi laget en liten liste over de mest brukte spesifikasjonene.

Laboratorium

American Petroleum Institute

API Gear Oil Specifications

GL-1

The designation API GL-1 denotes lubricants intended for manual transmissions operating under such mild conditions that straight petroleum or refined petroleum oil may be used satisfactorily. Oxidation and rust inhibitors, defoamers, and pour depressants may be added to improve the characteristics of these lubricants. Friction modifiers and extreme pressure additives shall not be used.

GL-2

The designation API GL-2 denotes lubricants intended for automotive worm-gear axles operating under such conditions of load, temperature, and sliding velocities that lubricants satisfactory for API GL-1 service will not suffice.

GL-3

The designation API GL-3 denotes lubricants intended for manual transmissions operating under moderate to severe conditions and spiral-bevel axles operating under mild to moderate conditions of speed and load. These service conditions require a lubricant having load-carrying capacities exceeding those satisfying API GL-1 service but below the requirements of lubricants satisfying API GL-4 service.

GL-4

The designation API GL-4 denotes lubricants intended for axles with spiral bevel gears operating under moderate to severe conditions of speed and load or axles with hypoid (see note)gears operating under moderate speeds and loads. These oils may be used in selected manual transmission and transaxle applications where MT-1 lubricants are unsuitable. The manufacturer's specific lubricant quality recommendations should be followed.

GL-5

The designation API GL-5 denotes lubricants intended for gears, particularly hypoid (see note) gears, in axles operating under various combinations of high-speed/shock load and low-speed/high-torque conditions.

GL-6

The designation API GL-6 denotes lubricants intended for gears designed with a very high pinion offset. Such designs typically require protection from gear scoring in excess of that provided by API GL-5 gear oils.

MT-1

The designation API MT-1 denotes lubricants intended for non-synchronized manual transmissions used in buses and heavy-duty trucks. Lubricants meeting the requirements of API MT-1 service provide protection against the combination of thermal degradation, component wear, and oil-seal deterioration, which is not provided by lubricants in current use meeting only the requirements of API GL-1, 4, or 5.

API Engine Oil Service Category Charts

Gasoline Engines

SN PLUS

Licensed from May 1, 2018, API SN Plus is a new API classification that can be used alongside API SN, API SN with Resource Conserving and ILSAC GF-5. It was developed in accordance with OEMs request for motor oils that can protect from the potentially catastrophic effects of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition

SN

Introduced in October 2010 for 2011 and older vehicles, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons, more stringent sludge control, and seal compatibility. API SN with Resource Conservingmatches ILSAC GF-5 by combining API SN performance with improved fuel economy, turbocharger protection, emission control systemcompatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85.

SM

Category SM oils are designed to provide improved oxidation resistance, improved deposit protection, better wear protection, and better low-temperature performance over the life of the oil. Some SM oils may also meet the latest ILSAC specification and/or qualify as Energy Conserving. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and SL earlier categories are recommended.

SL

Category SL was adopted to describe engine oils for use in 2001. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, sports utility vehicles, vans and light trucks operating under vehicle manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SL requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and earlier categories are recommended.

SJ

Category SJ was adopted in 1996 to describe engine oil first mandated in 1997. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, vans, and light trucks operating under manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SH requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SH and earlier categories are recommended.

SH - For model year 1996 and older engines.

SG - For model year 1993 and older engines.

SF - For model year 1988 and older engines.

SE - For model year 1979 and older engines.

SD - For model year 1971 and older engines.

SC - For model year 1967 and older engines.

SB - For older engines. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer.

SA - For older engines; no performance requirement. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer.

Diesel F Category

FA-4

API Service Category FA-4 describes certain XW-30 oils specifically formulated for use in select high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2017 model year on-highway greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards. These oils are formulated for use in on-highway applications with diesel fuel sulfur content up to 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight). Refer to individual engine manufacturer recommendations regarding compatibility with API FA-4 oils. These oils are blended to a high temperature high shear (HTHS) viscosity range of 2.9cP–3.2cP to assist in reducing GHG emissions. These oils are especially effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced aftertreatment systems are used. API FA-4 oils are designed to provide enhanced protection against oil oxidation, viscosity loss due to shear, and oil aeration as well as protection against catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, degradation of low- and high-temperature properties, and soot-related viscosity increase. API FA-4 oils are not interchangeable or backward compatible with API CK-4, CJ-4, CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, and CH-4 oils. Refer to engine manufacturer recommendations to determine if API FA-4 oils are suitable for use. API FA-4 oils are not recommended for use with fuels having greater than 15 ppm sulfur. For fuels with sulfur content greater than 15 ppm, refer to engine manufacturer recommendations.

Diesel C Categories

CK-4

API Service Category CK-4 describes oils for use in high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2017 model year on-highway and Tier 4 non-road exhaust emission standards as well as for previous model year diesel engines. These oils are formulated for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 500 ppm (0.05% by weight). However, the use of these oils with greater than 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulfur fuel may impact exhaust aftertreatment system durability and/or oil drain interval. These oils are especially effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced aftertreatment systems are used. API CK-4 oils are designed to provide enhanced protection against oil oxidation, viscosity loss due to shear, and oil aeration as well as protection against catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, degradation of low- and high-temperature properties, and soot-related viscosity increase. API CK-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of API CJ-4, CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, and CH-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. When using CK-4 oil with higher than 15 ppm sulfur fuel, consult the engine manufacturer for service interval recommendations.

CJ-4

Introduced in 2006 for high-speed four-stroke engines. Designed to meet 2007 on-highway exhaust emission standards. CJ-4 oils are compounded for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulphur content up to 500ppm (0.05% by weight). However, use of these oils with greater than 15ppm sulfur fuel may impact exhaust after treatment system durability and/or oil drain intervals. CJ-4 oils are effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced after treatment systems are used. CJ-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of CF-4, C-4, AH-4 and C-4.

CI-4 Plus

Used in conjunction with API C-4, the " CI-4 PLUS" designation identifies oils formulated to provide a higher level of protection against soot-related viscosity increase and viscosity loss due to shear in diesel engines. Like Energy Conserving, CI-4 PLUS appears in the lower portion of the API Service Symbol "Donut."

CI-4

The CI-4 performance requirements describe oils for use in those high speed, four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2004 exhaust emission standards, to be implemented October 2002. These oils are compounded for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.05% by weight. These oils are especially effective at sustaining engine durability where Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and other exhaust emission componentry may be used. Optimum protection is provided for control of corrosive wear tendencies, low and high temperature stability, soot handling properties, piston deposit control, valve train wear, oxidative thickening, foaming and viscosity loss due to shear. CI-4 oils are superior in performance to those meeting API CH-4, CG-4 and CF-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories.

CH-4

This service oils are suitable for high speed, four-stroke diesel engines designed to meet 1998 exhaust emission standards and are specifically compounded for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight. CH-4 oils are superior in performance to those meeting API CF-4 and API CG-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories.

CG-4

This category describes oils for use in high speed four-stroke-cycle diesel engines used in both heavy-duty on-highway (0.05% wt sulfur fuel) and off-highway (less than 0.5% wt sulfur fuel) applications. CG-4 oils provide effective control over high temperature piston deposits, wear, corrosion, foaming, oxidation stability, and soot accumulation. These oils are specially effective in engines designed to meet 1994 exhaust emission standards and may also be used in engines requiring API Service Categories CD, CE, and CF-4. Oils designed for this service have been in existence since 1994.

CF-2

Service typical of two-stroke cycle diesel engines requiring highly effective control over cylinder and ring-face scuffing and deposits. Oils designed for this service have been in existence since 1994 and may be used when API Service Category CD-II is recommended. These oils do not necessarily meet the requirements of API CF or CF-4 unless they pass the test requirements for these categories.

CF

Service typical of indirect-injection diesel engines and other diesel engines that use a broad range of fuel types, including those using fuel with high sulfur content; for example, over 0.5% wt. Effective control of piston deposits, wear and copper-containing bearing corrosion is essential for these engines, which may be naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged. Oils designated for this service have been in existence since 1994 and may be used when API Service Category CD is recommended.

CF-4

Service typical of high speed, four-stroke cycle diesel engines. API CF-4 oils exceed the requirements for the API CE category, providing improved control of oil consumption and piston deposits. These oils should be used in place of API CE oils. They are particularly suited for on-highway, heavy-duty truck applications. When combined with the appropriate S category, they can also be used in gasoline and diesel powered personal vehicles i.e., passenger cars, light trucks and vans when recommended by the vehicle or engine manufacturer.

CE

Service typical of certain turbocharged or supercharged heavy-duty diesel engines, manufactured since 1983 and operated under both low speed, high load and high speed, high load conditions. Oils designed for this service may also be used when API Service Category CD is recommended.

CD-II

Service typical of two-stroke cycle diesel engines requiring highly effective control of wear and deposits. Oils designed for this service also meet all performance requirements of API Service Category CD.

CD

Service typical of certain naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged diesel engines where highly effective control of wear and deposits is vital, or when using fuels with a wide quality range (including high-sulfur fuels). Oils designed for this service were introduced in 1955 and provide protection from high temperature deposits and bearing corrosion in these diesel engines.

CC

Service typical of certain naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged diesel engines operated in moderate to severe-duty service, and certain heavy-duty gasoline engines. Oils designed for this service provide protection from bearing corrosion, rust, corrosion and from high to low temperature deposits in gasoline engines. They were introduced in 1961.

CB

Service typical of diesel engines operated in mild to moderate duty, but with lower quality fuels, which necessitate more protection from wear and deposits; occasionally has included gasoline engines in mild service. Oils designed for this service were introduced in 1949. They provide necessary protection from bearing corrosion and from high temperature deposits in naturally aspirated diesel engines with higher sulfur fuels.

CA

Service typical of diesel engines operated in mild to moderate duty with high quality fuels; occasionally has included gasoline engines in mild service. Oils designed for this service provide protection from bearing corrosion and ring-belt deposits in some naturally aspirated diesel engines when using fuels of such quality that they impose no unusual requirements for wear and deposits protection. They were widely used in the 1940s and 1950s but should not be used in any engine unless specifically recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

ACEA Engine Oil Sequences

Olje til bilen

A/B: gasoline and diesel engine oils

 

ACEA A1/B1 Category is removed with the ACEA 2016 Oil Sequences. From ACEA 2012: Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use at extended drain intervals in gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines specifically designed to be capable of using low friction low viscosity oils with a high temperature / high shear rate viscosity of 2.6 mPa*s for xW/20 and 2.9 to 3.5 mPa.s for all other viscosity grades. These oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt.

ACEA A3/B3 Category is removed with the ACEA 2022 Oil Sequences. From ACEA 2016: Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil intended for use in Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & Diesel Engines and/or for extended drain intervals where specified by the engine manufacturer, and/or for year-round use of Low Viscosity Oils, and/or for severe operating conditions as defined by the Engine Manufacturer.

ACEA A3/B4 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil intended for use in Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines, but also suitable for applications described under A3/B3.

ACEA A5/B5 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil intended for use at extended Drain Intervals in Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & Diesel Engines designed to be capable of using Low Viscosity Oils with HTHS Viscosity of 2.9 to 3.5 mPa*s. These Oils are unsuitable for use in certain Engines - consult vehicle-OEM’s owner’s manual/handbook in case of doubt.

ACEA A7/B7 Stable, stay-in-grade engine oil intended for use at extended oil drain intervals in passenger car and light-duty gasoline and DI diesel engines designed for low viscosity engine oils with HTHS viscosity of 2.9 to 3.5 mPa*s. Relative to A5/B5, these engine oils provide also low-speed pre-ignition and wear protection for turbocharged gasoline DI engines, as well as turbocharger compressor deposit (TCCD) protection for modern DI diesel engines. These engine oils are unsuitable for use in certain engines – consult manufacturers’ owner manual/handbook in case of doubt.

C: Catalyst compatibility oils

Note: These Oils will increase the DPF/GPF and TWC life and maintain the Vehicle’s Fuel Economy.
Warning: Some of these Categories may be unsuitable for use in certain Engine Types – consult the vehicle- OEM’s owner’s manual/handbook in case of doubt.

 

ACEA C1 Category is removed with the ACEA 2022 Oil Sequences. Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil with Lowest SAPS-Level, intended for use as catalyst compatible Oil at extended Drain Intervals in Vehicles with all Types of modern Aftertreatment Systems and High Performance Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines that are designed to be capable of using Low Viscosity Oils with a minimum HTHS Viscosity of 2.9 mPa*s.

 

ACEA C2 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil with Mid SAPS-Level, intended for use as catalyst compatible Oil at extended Drain Intervals in Vehicles with all Types of modern Aftertreatment Systems and High Performance Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines that are designed to be capable of using Low Viscosity Oils with a minimum HTHS Viscosity of 2.9 mPa*s.

 

ACEA C3 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil with Mid SAPS-Level, intended for use as catalyst compatible Oil at extended Drain Intervals in Vehicles with all Types of modern Aftertreatment Systems and High Performance Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines that are designed to be capable of using Oils with a minimum HTHS Viscosity of 3.5 mPa*s.

 

ACEA C4 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil with Low SAPS-Level, intended for use as catalyst compatible Oil at extended Drain Intervals in Vehicles with all Types of modern Aftertreatment Systems and High Performance Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines that are designed to be capable of using Oils with a minimum HTHS Viscosity of 3.5 mPa*s.

 

ACEA C5 Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil with Mid SAPS-Level, for further improved Fuel Economy, intended for use as catalyst compatible Oil at extended Drain Intervals in Vehicles with all Types of modern Aftertreatment Systems and High Performance Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline & DI Diesel Engines that are designed to be capable and OEM-approved for use of Low Viscosity Oils with a minimum HTHS Viscosity of 2.6 mPa*s.

 

ACEA C6 Stable, stay-in-grade engine oil for improved fuel economy, with mid-SAPS level, for aftertreatment system compatibility. Intended for use at extended oil drain intervals in passenger car and light-duty gasoline, and DI diesel engines designed and OEM-approved for engine oils with HTHS viscosity of minimum 2.6 mPa⋅s. Relative to C5 these engine oils also provide low speed pre-ignition and wear protection for turbocharged gasoline DI engines as well as turbocharger compressor deposit (TCCD) protection for modern DI diesel engines.

E: Heavy Duty Diesel engine oils

ACEA E4 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer's recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for some EGR engines and some engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Driver Manuals and/or Dealers shall be consulted if in doubt.

 

ACEA E8 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, eg significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for EGR engines, with or without particulate filters, and for engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E8 quality is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers, so driver manuals and/or dealers must be consulted if in doubt.

 

ACEA E7 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer's recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Driver Manuals and/or Dealers shall be consulted if in doubt.

 

ACEA E11 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements and running under severe conditions, eg extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines with or without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and for most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E11 is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so driver manuals and/or dealers should be consulted if in doubt.

ACEA = Association des Constructeurs Europèens d`Automobiles

A/B : For bensin og diesel motorer. Eks. A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4, A5/B5.

C : For etterbehandling av eksosgasser (DPF). Eks. C1, C2, C3

E : For tyngre kjøretøyer. Eks. E2, E4, E6, E7, E9.

A1/B1 Olje av høy kvalitet med lite HTHS (High-Temperature High-Shear), grunnet drivstoffbesparende egenskaper. Kun godkjent for spesielle motorer på bakgrunn av produsentens spesifikasjoner.

A3/B3 Olje av høy kvalitet “stay-in-grade” for moderne høyprestanda motorer også beregnet for forlengede skiftintervall.

A3/B4 Som beskrevet ved A3/B3, men også beregnet for person/varebil diesel motorer med direkte innsprøytning.

A5/B5 Olje av høy kvalitet med lavere HTHS, kun godkjent for spesielle motorer på bakgrunn av produsentens spesifikasjoner.

C1 Lavt innhold av SAPS med lavere innhold av HTHS 2,6 - 2,9 mPas, sulfat aske  max. 0,5% , sulfur max. 0,2% w/w, fosfor max. 0,05% , tilsvarer prestanda ACEA A5/B5 og bevist drivstoffbesparende som ACEA A1.

C2 Middels SAPS olje med lavere innhold av HTHS 2,9 mPas, sulfat aske max. 0,8%  sulfur max. 0,3% , fosfor max. 0,08% , tilsvarer prestanda  ACEA A5/B5 og bevist drivstoffbesparende som ACEA A1.

C3 Middels SAPS olje uten lavere HTHS 3,5 mPas, sulfataske  0,8%, sulfur max. 0,3%, fosfor max. 0,08% , tilsvarer prestanda ACEA A5/B5.

E2 Universal motor olje for tungdiesel for normal bruk, men ikke for forlengede skiftintervaller.

E4 Universal tilpasset olje for tungdiesel som tilfredsstiller utslippskrav standard EURO 1 og EURO 2. For bruk ved stor belastning og godkjent for de lengste skiftintervallene i følge produsents spesifikasjoner. Sammenliknet med E3 har E4 bedre evne til å rense og ta opp sot fra motoren.

E6 Euro 4 motorer med eksosresirkulering og diesel partikkel filter(EGR/DPF)med prestanda lik ACEA E4/E5 med reduserte additiver som sulfat aske 1,0%, fosfor max. 0,08%, sulfur max. 0,3%. Foretrukne SAE grader 10W-40

E7 Euro 4 motorer med eksosresirkulering (EGR) uten dieselpartikkel filter og uten kjemiske begrensning av additivene(P, S, SA), Foretrukket SAE grad 15W-40 .

E9 Ligger nær opptil ACEA E7, men er en Low SAPS olje for motorer med eksosrensesystem. Spesifikasjonen inneholder også de strengeste kravene til amerikanske motorer som API CJ-4.

E3/E5 Utgikk i 2004.

 

API= American Petrolium Institute 

API har klassifiseringen S (service) for bensinmotor, og klassifiseringen C (commercial) for dieselmotor.

For bensinmotorer gjelder derfor disse klassifiseringer:

SH - Tåler store påkjenninger og gir høy prestada.

SL - Tøffere motortest sammenliknet med API SH.

SM - For motorer med forbedret slitasje og oksiderings egenskaper, med forbedret pumpetrykk og begrenset fosfor nivå.

For dieselmotorer gjelder disse klassifiseringer:

CF - Turbotestet, tåler høye påkjenninger. Kan også brukes der det stilles krav til CD klassifisering.

CF-4 - For hurtiggående dieselmotorer, med lavt utslipp, med slitasje, oksiderende, rustbeskyttende egenskaper og mot sot.

CF-4 klassifisering overgår CD og CE oljer, og kan benyttes der disse klassifiseringene er påkrevet. CG-4 - For hurtiggående dieselmotorer, med lavt utslipp, med slitasje, oksiderende, rustbeskyttende egenskaper og mot sot. Erstatter API CF-4.

CH-4 - For tung diesel.

CI-4 - Motorer med lavt sulfur (0,05%) innhold tilpasset utslippskravene fra 2004.

 

API Girolje spesifikasjoner

 

API systemet beskriver ikke bare motoroljekvalitet - det beskriver også giroljekvalitet (Auto)
Heldigvis for oss er det kun dette systemet som benyttes pr i dag, og det benyttes av samtlige oljeprodusenter. API systemet for gearolje er svært enkelt, ved hjelp av en tall/bokstav kode forteller de oss om mengden / typen høytrykkstilsetninger som finnes i oljen. Bokstavene "GL" etter API viser oss at det handler om en girolje - i tillegg er det alltid et tall. Tallet viser oss mengden høytrykkstilsetninger som er i oljen.

API GL  1                 - Girolje med lite høytrykkstilsetninger
API GL  4                 - Girolje med moderate høytrykkstilsetninger
API GL  5                 - Girolje med spesielle høytrykkstilsetninger - også kalt hypoidolje
API GL 4 / 5             - Girolje med moderate til spesielle høytrykkstilsetninger
API GL 5 LS            - Girolje som GL 5 vist over, men i tillegg antifriksjonstilsetninger for differensial bremser m.m.

API kodene framgår alltid på etikettene på oljeemballasjen og i instruksjonbøker/ anbefalings-tabeller  for kjøretøy. Med andre ord - er du i tvil om hvilken motorolje du skal velge, slå opp i instruksjonsboken / anbefalingstabellen for kjøretøyet og sjekk mot etiketten på oljeemballasjen.

 SAE = Society of Automotive Engineers

Dette er minimums krav til hvilket bredde i temperatur de respektive viskositetene skal holde. For eksempel  har 5W-40  i fra de anerkjente produsentene  hellepunkt   under - 40 grader. SAE-verdi er beskrevet på beholderen med to tall og en bokstav feks.: 5w-40 eller 0w-30. ((W = Winter) oljens viskositet/flyteevne)). Dette betyr at oljens konsistens endrer seg fra det første til det andre tallet ettersom temperaturen på motoren stiger, - og samtidig bevarer smøreevnen.

Jo lavere det første tallet er jo mer tyntflytende er oljen i kald tilstand. Dette letter starten ved lave temperaturer uten at det skal gå utover smøreevnen.

Pr. definisjon er viskositet  et "Uttrykk for en væskes motstand mot å flyte". Viskositeten på en og samme olje vil variere med temperaturen den utsettes for.

Ved lav temperatur vil oljen normalt være tyktflytende -  ha høy viskositet.

Ved høy temperatur vil oljen normalt være lettflytende - ha lav viskositet

I hvor stor grad viskositeten endrer seg er avhengig er avhengig av baseoljens egenskaper, ( Ref. mineralsk kontra syntetisk ) samt additivene.

Viskositetsindeks er et uttrykk, eller mål for hvor mye en olje forandrer viskositet ved temperatur- endringer. Høy VI (Viskositetsindeks) på en olje, f.eks. 150 forteller oss at denne oljen endrer seg mindre ved temperaturendringer enn en olje med VI på f.eks 100.

Angivelse av viskositeten skjer i henhold til internasjonale standarder.

Det er to typer viskositet, dynamisk og kinematisk, og det er sistnevnte vi har mest med å gjøre.

Kinematisk viskositet har benevnelsen mm2/s,  (Centistokes, ofte forkortet til cSt.) og er et mål på en væskes motstand mot å flyte under påvirkning av tyngdekraften. Det er vanlig å måle denne ved 40 og 100 °C.

ISO-VG systemet (International Standardization Organization - Viscosity Grade )

 ISO standarden 3448 deler industrioljer inn i ISO-VG klasser. Standarden forteller hvilken viskositet oljen skal ha ved 40 °C, samt hvilke avvik som tillates innenfor hver klasse.

Jo lavere ISO-klasse, jo tynnere er oljen. Laveste klasse er ISO-VG 2, med en viskositet på 2,2 mm²/s v/40 °C. Til sammenligning har vanlig dieselolje en viskositet på rundt 2,5 mm²/s v/40 °C.

De laveste klassene ("Tynneste" oljene = ISO-VG 2 til 10) er typisk spindeloljer for verktøymaskiner etc. De mest benyttede klassene er 15 til 220, hvor hydraulikkoljer, turbin-/sirkulasjonsoljer og kompressoroljer vanligvis ligger i klassene opp til 100, mens vekseloljer vanligvis går opp i klassene til 220.

For klassene over 220 finner vi en stor grad veksel og sirkulasjonsoljer for litt mer spesielle bruksområder.

FETT OG NLGI NUMMER

Fett består som de fleste andre smøremidler av en baseolje, iblandet forskjellige additiver. Additivene er mye de samme som brukes i smøreoljer. Baseoljen kan være mineralsk, syntetisk eller delsyntetisk.

Det helt spesielle med fett er at man må bruke et såkalt fortykningsmiddel ( Metallsåpe ) i baseoljen for å oppnå den ønskede konsistens. Mengden fortykningsmiddel er ganske liten, ca. 10 % er tilstrekkelig for å gjøre om en tyntflytende olje til fettkonsistens.

De mest vanlige såpetypene er litium, kalium, natrium og gel. Såpetypene er ofte gjort "komplekse", (en flerstegsframtillingsprosess) for å øke bruksområdet. Fett som er bygget opp som "komplekse", er dyrere enn andre fett, men har som regel et større bruksområde, f.eks på temperatursiden.

Som nevnt blandes tilsetninger, additiver,  i fettet for å gi det spesielle egenskaper. Et av de spesielle høytrykksadditivene for fett kan være molybdendisulfid. I dette tilfelle vil du kunne lese dette ut av produktnavnet.

Et svært vanlig spørsmål handler om fettets konsistens, eller fasthet. Det angis alltid ved et såkalt NLGI - nummer. NLGI er en forkortelse for National Lubricating Grease Institute.

Etter NLGI - systemet er det 9 klasser - fra det meget bløte og nærmest flytende 000 - fett til det nærmest helt faste 6 - fettet. Det er verdt å merke seg at mesteparten av det fett som benyttes innenfor industri - og transportsektor ligger i NLGI - klasse 2.

NLGI klassifikasjoner :

NLGI  000       - nærmest flytende

NLGI   00        - som over

NLGI     0        - noe fastere

NLGI     1        - noe fastere

NLGI     2        - den vanligst benyttede fasthet

NLGI     3        - noe fastere

NLGI     4              *

NLGI     5              *

NLGI     6        - nærmest helt fast

Samtlige oljeselskap benytter NLGI - systemet, og som regel framgår NLGI nummeret i tallet etter produktnavnet.

I tillegg til konsistens settes det en rekke andre krav til et fetts egenskaper, alle disse testes i henhold til internasjonale normer som DIN, ASTM, ISO, SKF, Timken, FAG etc.

En annen viktig egenskap er fettets dråpepunkt. Dråpepunktet er ved den temperatur hvor fettet smelter, og avgir dråper. Ved valg av fett må man derfor på forhånd undersøke hvilke temperaturer fettet skal arbeide under - og velge et fett som tåler den aktuelle temperaturen.

Man bør også være oppmerksom på at ikke alle fettyper er blandbare med hverandre, dette gjelder spesielt for syntetiske fettyper.

OEM = Original Equipment Manufacturers

Her er noen eksempler på orginal spesifikasjoner:

DAIMLER CHRYSLER, MB 228.1, 228.3, 228.5, 228.51, 229.1, 229.3, 229.31, 229.5, 229.51

VOLKSWAGEN, 500.00, 501.00, 502.00, 503.00/01, 504.00, 505.00/01, 506.00/01, 507.00

MAN, M3275 / M3277 / MAN 3477 (LOW SAP PRODUKT)

MACK, TO API CG-4, CH-4

VOLVO,VDS, VDS-II, VDS III

MTU, TIL CF ELLER CF-4 ELLER ACEA E-KLASSE

RENAULT RVI, BMW, PSA, FORD, LANCIA, FIAT, ALFA, PORSCHE, RENAULT, ROVER

Ordliste

API American Petroleum Institute. Spesifiserer kvalitetsnivået for motoroljer og giroljer.

Askeinnhold Askerestene som er igjen etter at oljen er fullstendig forbrent. Askeinnholdet angis i prosentandelen av massen, og asken består av uorganiske salter, oksider og mineraler.

ASTM American society for testing and materials.

Bentonitt Leire som brukes som fortykningsmiddel i høytemperaturfett.

Bunnavfall Avleiringer av urenheter, særlig i motorer.

CCMC / ACEA Allianse som består av europeiske bilprodusenter innenfor EU.

CP CentiPoise, måleenhet for dynamisk viskositet - mPa.s.

cSt centiStoke, måleenhet for kinematisk viskositet.

Detergent Tilsetning i motorolje som øker oljens slamdisepergerende evne.

Dispergent Overflateaktivt stoff som tilsettes for å finfordele partikler.

DIN Deutshe Industrie-Normen.

Dråpepunkt Temperaturen som oljen ikke lenger kan helles ved.

Emulgerbar olje Olje som blandes med vann og danner en stabil emulsjon.

Engler (*E) Utdatert måleenhet for viskositet.

EP Ekstremt trykk, høyttrykkstilsetning for olje og fett.

Fetolje Animaliske og vegetabilske oljer. Brukes som filmforsterkende tilsetning.

Fett med litiumkompleks Smørefett som er fortykket med en litiumsåpekompleks, slik at den kan brukes ved høyere arbeidstemperaturer.

Flammepunkt Oljens temperatur når gassene som slippes ut, antennes ved hjelp av åpen ild. Måles med COC-metoden (Cleveland Open Cup) eller PMCC-metoden (Pensky-martens Closed Cup).

Flytepunkt Den laveste temperaturen som oljen fortsatt flyter ved (under avkjøling).

Friksjon Bevegelsesmotstand.

Glykol En alkoholtype som brukes mye innenfor smøreteknologien.

Grafitt Et fast smøremiddel som brukes som tilsetning i olje og fett.

HD-olje Heavy Duty - Gammel betegnelse på motorolje med rengjørende egenskaper.

IR Infrarødt spektrofotometer til analysering av smøremidler.

JASO Japan Automobile Standards Organization.

Kolloider Svært små partikler som tilsettes enkelte smøremidler.

Korrosjonsbeskyttelse Tilsetning som motvirker rust og korrosjon.

Krakking Molekylknusing, tunge olje-molekyler knuses for å danne lette molekyler.

MIL-L xxx Amerikansk militærspesifikasjoner. (MIL-L-2105C = API GL-5) (MIL-L-46152D = API SG)

Molybdendisulfid (MoS2) En fast tilsetning for oljer og fett.

MVMA Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association.

Naftenisk olje Mineralolje med gode flyteegenskaper ved lave temperaturer.

NMMA National Marine Manufacturers Association, opprinnelsen til BIA - Boating Industry Association.

NLGI Klassefiseringssystem for smørefett i henhold til konsistens.

OEM Original Equipment Manufacturers, produsenter av teknisk utstyr (med komponenter fra underleverandører).

Oksideringsbeskyttelse Tilsetning som skal hindre oljen i å oksidere, og dermed sørge for at den kan brukes lengre.

PAO Polyalfaolefiner, en type syntetisk baseolje som kan blandes med mineralolje.

Parafinbasert olje Mineralolje som er den mest brukte baseoljen i smøremidler.

Polymer Lange molekylkjeder Syntetisk tilsetning for å forbedre oljens flyteevne.

Pumpbarhet Den laveste temperaturen som det er mulig å pumpe oljen ved.

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE- systemet brukes til å gradere motor- og girolje i henhold til viskositeten.

Silikon Vannavstøtende polymerer.

Syntetisk olje Smøreoljer hvor baseoljen er produsert ved hjelp av en kjemisk prosess. Grunnlaget er som regel råolje eller gass.

TBN Total Base Number. Viser oljens evne til å nøytralisere syrer.

Tilsetningsstoff Stoffer som tilsettes smøremidler, drivstoff for å forbedre visse egenskaper.

Tribologi Studiet av smøring, friksjon, og slitasje.

VI Viskositetsindeks, et uttrykk for oljens motstand mot skiftende viskositet ved temperaturvariasjoner.

Viskositet Angir en væskes tykkelse og/eller flyteevne.

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